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Quotation Marks


Quotation Marks (" ") most often indicate direct quotations (exact words of a speaker or writer). Quotation marks also express the use of certain words in a special way and specify titles of shorter works. Direct quotations are a word- for-word uses of an outside source. To preserve integrity, the outside source must be quoted exactly, and the use of its material must be properly set off and, usually, documented. These conditions are to be maintained when quoting from any source: written, spoken, witnessed, or expressed in an electronic form (on the Internet, for example).

Use of Quotation Marks with Direct Quotations

Set direct quotations apart with double quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quoted material.

Example:

• Schwartz found the government's judicial policy "morally suspect and without a concern for due process."

The example above includes the quote in the context of the sentence. Some quotations are introduced more formally, and a punctuation mark such as a comma or a colon separates the introductory material from the quote itself:

Examples:

• Schwartz did not approve of the government's judicial policy: "I found the government's judicial policy to be morally suspect and without a concern for due process."

The first line of Moby Dick is, "Call me Ishmael." When employing a long direct quote (occupying more than four typed lines), do not use quotation marks. Instead, use a block quote style, indenting all lines in the quote as a block:

Example:

• Schwartz did not approve of the government's judicial policy:

I found the government's judicial policy to be morally suspect and without a concern for due process. The policy leaves the suspect open to various forms of persecution without the benefit of a fair trial with proper legal counsel, and presumes that the suspect is guilty from the outset.

Note: Be certain to always document your sources correctly, according to the documentation method approved by your profession or academic discipline.

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